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Scientists Discovered Three New Types of Neurons in Ear

We all are aware of this information that the human brain is made up of a complex network of neurons. These neurons contribute as the building blocks of the nervous system, conveying information to and from the brain and throughout the body. However, the human brain contains around 100 billion neurons.

Currently, at the Karolinska Institute, a team of Swedish researchers has revealed three new types of neurons in the peripheral auditory system. These neurons carry auditory signals from the ear to the brain and may hold the secrets to treating hearing disorders like tinnitus.

At the point when sound reaches the internal ear, it is changed over into electrical signs that are handed-off to the brain by means of the ear’s nerve cells in the cochlea. Previously, the greater part of these cells was considered to be of two kinds: type 1 and type 2 neurons, type 1 transmitting the majority of the sound-related data.

One more research by researchers at Karolinska Institute shows that the type 1 cells actually include three very different cell types, which counts with former research demonstrating varieties in the electrical properties and the sonic reaction of type 1 cells.

François Lallemend, research group leader, who led the study, said that they now know that there are three different routes into the central auditory system, as an alternative of just one. It makes them better placed to understand the part played by the different neurons in hearing. He further told that they’ve also mapped out which genes are active in the individual cell types.

He said, “Our study can open the way for the development of genetic tools that can be used for new treatments for different kinds of hearing disorders, such as tinnitus. Our mapping can also give rise to different ways of influencing the function of individual nerve cells in the body.”

Scientists carried out their study on mice. For this, they used a new technique of single-cell RNA sequencing. The outcome is a list of the genes expressed in the nerve cells, which can give researchers a strong foundation for better understanding the sound-related system and also to devise new treatments and medications.

The examination demonstrates that these three neuron composes most likely have an impact in the translating of sonic intensity (i.e. volume), a capacity that is essential among discussions in a loud situation, which depend on the capacity to separate through the background noise. This property is likewise vital in various types of hearing the issue, for example, tinnitus or hyperacusis.

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