The project describes setting up a Polo T-Shirts Manufacturing Unit in any big city of Pakistan. This study provides details about the investment opportunity in a stitching unit for knitted garments. Mainly the production of this unit will be for export purpose, and hence will contribute in the earning of foreign exchange for the country. Therefore, all the calculations and financial workings have been done while treating this as an export based project.
Following key parameters must be addressed as per the study under preparation:
Technology: This proposed unit with modern processing machines including straight knife cutting machine, lock-stitch machine with automatic thread trimmer, chain-stitch button sewing machine with thread trimmer, computer controlled high speed lock-stitch button sewing machine, oil barrier, and fully automatic electric steam generator, etc will produce premium quality polo Tshirts.
Product: The proposed project will be producing branded polo T-Shirts in small, medium, large, and extra-large sizes.
Production Process of T-Shirts in Pakistan
Making T-shirts is a fairly simple and largely automated process. Specially designed machines integrate cutting, assembling, and stitching for the most efficient operations. The most commonly used seams for T-shirts are narrow, superimposed seams, which are usually made by placing one piece of fabric onto another and lining up the seam edges. These seams are frequently stitched with an over edge stitch, which requires one needle thread from above and two looper threads from below. This particular seam and stitch combination results in a flexible finished seam.
Another type of seam that may be used for T-shirts are bound seams, in which a narrow piece of fabric is folded around a seam, as at the neckline. These seams may be stitched together using a lock-stitch, chain-stitch, or over edge stitch. Depending on the style of the T-shirt, the order in which the garment is assembled may vary slightly.
Styling: The T-shirt style is designed and the dimensions are transferred to patterns. Adjustments are made for size differences and stylistic preferences.
Cutting: The T-shirt sections are cut to the dimensions of the patterns. The pieces consist of a tubed body, or separate front and back sections, sleeves, perhaps pockets, and trim.
Assembling the front and back: For fabric that is not tubed, the separate pieces for the front and back sections must be stitched together at the sides. They are joined at the seam lines to form a simple, narrow, super-imposed seam and stitched together using an over-edge stitch. Care must be taken to avoid a needle cutting the yarn of the fabric, which can lead to tears in the garment.
Assembling the sleeves: The hems of sleeves are generally finished before they are fitted into the garment, since it is easier to hem the fabric while it is flat. An automated system moves the sleeves to the sewing head by conveyor. The edge may be finished by folding it over, forming the hem and stitching, or by applying a band. The band may be attached as a superimposed seam or folded over the edge as binding.
If the T-shirt body is tubular, the sleeve material is first sewn together, and then set into the garment. Alternatively, if the T-shirt is “cut and sewn,” the un-seamed sleeve is set into place. Later during the final stage of sewing the shirt, the sleeve and side seams are sewn in one action.
Stitching the hem: The garment hem is commonly sewn with an over-edge stitch, resulting in a flexible hem. The tension of the stitch should be loose enough to allow stretching the garment without tearing the fabric. Alternative hem styles include a combination of edge finishing stitches.
Adding pockets: Pockets may be sewn onto T-shirts intended for casual wear. Higher quality T-shirts will insert an interlining into the pocket so that it maintains its shape. The interlining is inserted into the pocket as it is sewn onto the T-shirt front. Pockets may be attached to the garment with automated setters, so the operator only has to arrange the fabric pieces, and the mechanical setter positions the pocket and stitches the seam.
Stitching the shoulder seams: Generally, shoulder seams require a simple superimposed seam. Higher quality T shirt manufacturers may reinforce seams with tape or elastic. Depending on the style of the T-shirt, the seams at the shoulder may be completed before or after the neckband is attached. For instance, if a tubular neckband is to be applied, the shoulder seams must first be closed.
Attaching the neckband: For crew neck shirts, the neck edge should be slightly shorter in circumference than the outer edge where it is attached to the garment. Thus, the neckband must be stretched just the right amount to prevent bulging. Tubular neckbands are applied manually. The bands are folded, wrong sides together, stretched slightly, and aligned with the neckline. The superimposed seam is stitched with an over-edge stitch.
Bound seams are finished with a cover stitch and are easy to achieve. Bound seams may be used on a variety of neckline styles. The process entails feeding ribbed fabric through machines which fold the fabric and apply tension to it. Some neckbands on lower-priced shirts are attached separately to the front and back necklines of the garment. Thus when the shoulder seams are stitched, seams are visible on the neckband.
V-necks require the extra step of either lapping or mitering the neckband. In the former process, one side is folded over the other. A mitered seam is more complex, requiring an operator to overlap the band accurately and stitch the band at center front. An easier method for a V-neck look is to attach the band to the neckline and then sew a tuck to form a V.
Finishing the neckline: Necklines with superimposed seams may be taped, so that the shirt is stronger and more comfortable. Tape may be extended across the back and over the shoulder seams to reinforce this area as well and to flatten the seam. The seam is then cover stitched or top stitched.
Label setting: One or more labels are usually attached at the back of the neckline. Labels provide information about the manufacturer, size, fabric content, and washing instructions.
Optional features: Some T-shirts will have trim or screen prints added for decorative purposes. Special T-shirts for infants have larger openings at the head. The shoulder seams are left open near the neck, and buttons or other fasteners are attached.
Finishing operations: T-shirts are inspected for flaws in the fabric, stitching, and thread. High-quality T-shirts may be pressed through steam tunnels before they are packaged. Packaging depends on the type of T-shirt and the intended distribution outlet. For underwear, the shirts are folded and packaged in pre-printed bags, usually of clear plastic, that list information about the product. Shirts may be boarded, or folded around a piece of cardboard, so that they maintain their shape during shipping and on the shelf. Finally, they are placed into boxes by the dozen or half-dozen.