This article is about setting up goat fattening farm in Pakistan in which, young goats preferably males are raised on nutritionally balanced feed or Total Mixed Ration (TMR) to get the targeted weight gain of greater value.
The study is based on raising 528 goats per year in a farm in three production batches, each having 176 goats. The goats (preferably males, however, females may also be used in case of unavailability of males) of 6-8 months of age are fed on nutritionally balanced concentrate ration or Total Mixed Ration (TMR) as major source of energy and protein in addition to green fodder for a period of 120 days to get higher body weight gain. Initial live body weight of goats is around 10 kg. If these goats are fed properly on formulated fattening feed, an additional weight, up to 15 kg can be achieved. The daily weight gain varies between 125 to 140 grams depending on the quality of feed given to them. This project will provide direct employment to four people.
The proposed business may be established in rural and peri-urban areas of major cities such as Pattoki, Sahiwal, Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan, Jehlum, Mandi Bahauddin, Bahawalpur, Karachi, Sakkar, Dadu, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Charsadda, D.I. Khan, Lasbela, Qila Saifullah, Quetta etc. The goat farm should be located in a place where there is abundant availability of fodder, natural vegetation and water. Although, there is year-round market, however the demand increases especially before occasions like Eid-ulAzha, where well fed animals are sold at a higher price than usual weight based price.
Apart from major cities, livestock markets in all the cities and peri urban locations across the country are the primary markets in addition to specially arranged locations in larger cities during Eid festival in the urban markets. The price of fattened goats varies according to health of animals and market conditions. Normally animals are sold on ‘Live Body Weight’ basis. In this feasibility, Rs. 350 per kg of live body weight is assumed as selling price. Following are some of the target clients for goat fattening farmers in Pakistan;
- Livestock traders & meat exporters
- Saudi meat exporters
- Butchers & meat shops
- Slaughter house owners
Goat Farming Procedure in Pakistan
Selection of good goat breed: There are 37 breeds of goats reported in Pakistan, among which, good breeds are considered to be; Beetal, Dera Din Panah and Teddy in Punjab, Barbari and Kamori in Sindh, Kaghani and Jatal in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, and Khurassani, Lehri and Pahari in Balochistan. The availability of young stock is not a problem as twinning, triplet kidding and early maturity are common features of goats.
Teddy is a meat type, small sized breed, kept for good meat production and conformation with 52-55% dressing percentage. After fattening, the fat to muscle composition is also acceptable. Beetal goat is more desirable for Eid-ul-Azha as it has higher weights and more marbling with higher dressing percentage.
Selection of animals with excellent body score and conditions: initial live body weight should be around 10-12 kg at 6-8 months of age. Small and emaciated animals may also be accepted for fattening as research shows that these animals respond positively in terms of feed efficiency.
Housing: should be dry, comfortable and airy with proper and frequent removal of droppings, urine and waste material (droppings can be used as bio fertilizer for growing crops/ fodder).Farm should be established on scientific lines with adequate space allocation according to the number of goats. It should be built east-west length wise to permit maximum day light and sun for natural disinfection.
A dipping bath pit of approximately 15-20 sq.ft is necessary for giving the dip of medicines mixed water to young stock for removing external parasites.
Feeding: Adequate weight gain can be achieved through use of balanced feed purchased from well reputed companies or it can be formulated accordingly. Animal should be fed TMR @ 3 % of live body weight. Additionally, salt blocks can help in better daily weight gains. Green fodder is offered at 5% of body weight (wet basis) to every animal.
Watering: Daily supply of clean drinking water in clean troughs i.e. 5 to 10 liters of water consumption/animal/day maintains the production capacity of the animal. Due to TMR and salt offered, animal tends to consume more water.